All kit components of this kit are stable at 2 to 8°C. Any unused reconstituted standard should be discarded or frozen at -70°C. Standard can be frozen and thawed one time only without loss of immunoreactivity.
< 2.790 pg/ml
Sample Type :
Human serum, plasma, cell lysate, culture supernatants, buffered solution
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream. Functionally, it is a cytokine and hormone, a type of colony-stimulating factor, and is produced by a number of different tissues. G-CSF also stimulates the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and function of neutrophil precursors and mature neutrophils. G-CSF regulates them using Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signal transduction pathway. G-CSF is produced by endothelium, macrophages, and a number of other immune cells. The natural human glycoprotein exists in two forms, a 174- and 177-amino-acid-long protein of molecular weight 19,600 grams per mole. The more-abundant and more-active 174-amino acid form has been used in the development of pharmaceutical products by recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. The G-CSF-receptor is present on precursor cells in the bone marrow, and, in response to stimulation by G-CSF, initiates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes. G-CSF is also a potent inducer of HSCs mobilization from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, although it has been shown that it does not directly affect the hematopoietic progenitors that are mobilized. Beside the effect on the hematopoietic system, G-CSF can also act on neuronal cells as a neurotrophic factor. Indeed, its receptor is expressed by neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The action of G-CSF in the central nervous system is to induce neurogenesis, to increase the neuroplasticity and to counteract apoptosis. These properties are currently under investigations for the development of treatments of neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia.
Background reference :
1) Thomas J, Liu F, Link DC (May 2002). "Mechanisms of mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor". Curr. Opin. Hematol. 9 (3): 183–9.
2) Schneider A, Krüger C, Steigleder T, Weber D, Pitzer C, Laage R, Aronowski J, Maurer MH, Gassler N, Mier W, Hasselblatt M, Kollmar R, Schwab S, Sommer C, Bach A, Kuhn HG, Schäbitz WR (August 2005). "The hematopoietic factor G-CSF is a neuronal ligand that counteracts programmed cell death and drives neurogenesis". J. Clin. Invest. 115 (8): 2083–98.
3) Pitzer C, Krüger C, Plaas C, Kirsch F, Dittgen T, Müller R, Laage R, Kastner S, Suess S, Spoelgen R, Henriques A, Ehrenreich H, Schäbitz WR, Bach A, Schneider A (December 2008). "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor improves outcome in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Brain 131 (Pt 12): 3335–47.